Acremonium is a fungal genus formerly known as Cephalosporium. It is a widespread mold currently believed to contain about 100 species. Most species of this mold exist as saprophytes, being isolated from dead plant material and soil. Some species are parasites of plants and animals capable of causing serious infections. A few species are widely used for producing pharmaceuticals.
Acremonium rarely cause disease in humans. However, infection with Acremonium has been described in immunocompromised patients. It can cause fungal maxillary sinusitis. In medical literature, it has been reported as the cause of pulmonary infections and infections of the cornea and nails in individuals with weak immune systems. There are three main species of Acremonium associated with human infections: Acremonium falciforme, A. kiliense, and A. recifei. The 3 species are biosafety level 2 fungi. Some species have been reported to be allergenic while some are known to produce mycotoxins.
Occurrence of Acremonium in indoor environment
In indoor environment, Acremonium species are primarily isolated from acoustic and thermal fibreglass insulation used in heating ventilation and air conditioning systems, cooling coils, drain pans, windowsills, and water from humidifiers. Also found on carpet and mattress dust, damp or wet walls (especially in basements), gypsum board and wallpaper. The most common species in indoor environment are Acremonium strictum and A. charticola. Acremonium strictum is commonly encountered in wet, cellulose-based building materials suffering from chronic wet conditions. It can also be recovered from outside air samples.